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Study smart By Lea Winerman You probably think you know how to study.After all, you've made it to graduate school.
You've successfully turned in homework assignments and passed exams for at least 16 years DPhil in Experimental Psychology University of Oxford.You've successfully turned in homework assignments and passed exams for at least 16 years.
And there's a good chance that you have your study routine set, whether it's a cup of tea and your textbooks in bed, or a quiet library carrel you've claimed as your own.But it may be that the study habits you've honed for a decade or two aren't serving you as well as you think they are.Research has shown that some "common sense" study techniques — such as always reading in the same quiet location, or spending hours at a time concentrating on one subject — don't promote long-term learning.And some habits that you might suspect aren't so great, like last-minute cramming for exams, may be even worse than you thought help me with college design presentation Junior Turabian Formatting.
And some habits that you might suspect aren't so great, like last-minute cramming for exams, may be even worse than you thought.
We've rounded up three principles, drawn from decades of cognitive psychology research, to help you get the most out of your studying hours.Space Your Study Sessions As course reading piles up, it can be tempting to let yourself fall behind, all the while reassuring yourself that you'll spend two days cramming right before an exam.But while last-minute cramming may allow you to pass a test, you won't remember the material for long, according to Williams College psychologist Nate Kornell, PhD.Decades of research have demonstrated that spacing out study sessions over a longer period of time improves long-term memory.
In other words, if you have 12 hours to spend on a subject, it's better to study it for three hours each week for four weeks than to cram all 12 hours into week four.
And for the most part, the more time you take between study sessions, the better off you are — at least within the time limits of an academic semester."At some point, waiting too long between sessions could have a negative effect on learning ," Kornell says."However, most of us space far too little.Practically speaking, too much spacing is not really a danger anyone should worry about." Researchers aren't exactly sure why spacing is so effective.
However, one possible cause is that, over time, people forget what they learned in their initial study session.Then, when they come back to the material later, the new study session jogs their memory and they recall what they learned the first time around.That process — forgetting and retrieval — helps cement the new knowledge in place.In one study, published in 2009 in Applied Cognitive Psychology, Kornell showed that the spacing effect works on a smaller time scale as well.He asked college students to study a "stack" of 20 digital vocabulary flashcards.
The students all studied each word four times.But half of the students studied the words in one big stack — they went through all 20 words, then started over.The other half of the students studied the words in four smaller stacks of five cards each.So, the students who used the one big stack had a longer spacing time between each of the four times they saw a word.On a test the next day, the students in the "big stack" group remembered significantly more of the words than the students in the "four small stacks" group — 49 percent as compared with 36 percent.
When it comes to spacing, students are often led astray by their own experiences, says Kent State University psychology professor Katherine Rawson, PhD, who also studies learning."They cram right before an exam, and to be honest that's probably OK for doing fine on your exam," she says."But the problem is that it's horrible for long-term retention.Students don't realize that they're really undercutting their own learning." Interweave Your Subjects You might think that if you want to learn one thing well, the best thing to do would be to sit down and concentrate on it for as long as you can stand.
But research shows that mixing tasks and topics is a better bet.In one study, published in Psychological Science in 2008, Kornell and University of California, Los Angeles psychologist Robert Bjork, PhD, asked 120 participants to learn the painting styles of 12 artists by looking at six examples of each artist's work.For half of the artists, the participants saw all six paintings in a row.For the other half of the artists, they saw the paintings in a mixed-up order.At the end of the experiment, the participants did a distracting task (counting backward by threes from 547), and then had to identify which artist had painted a new painting.
The participants were significantly better at identifying the artists' whose paintings they had studied in an "interwoven" style than the artists whose paintings they'd studied in blocks.Why does mixing up subject matter help students learn? Again, as in spacing, the key may be in the learning, forgetting and relearning that helps the brain cement the new information for the long-term.Another factor, Bjork says, could be that the mixing — he calls it "interleaving" — forces students to notice and process the similarities and differences among the things they're trying to learn, giving them a better, deeper understanding of the material.Despite strong evidence that interleaving works, it can be tough for teachers to work the mixed-up style of teaching into their lectures, he says."People expect to be taught the way they're used to being taught," he says.
"Most courses involve blocking by topic.If you start interleaving you're going to seem disorganized." But, he adds, students can bring the method into their own study sessions.Test Yourself Testing gets a bad rap: Students don't enjoy taking quizzes, teachers don't like to grade them, and some people bemoan that too many exams can force teachers to "teach to the test" and squeeze creativity out of the classroom.But done right, testing can be a useful tool to help students learn, researchers say.
Decades of research has shown that making yourself recall information helps strengthen your long-term learning, says Henry Roediger, PhD, a psychologist at Washington University in St.Louis who has done some of the key research in the area.In other words, students might not enjoy taking a quiz at the end of every class or testing themselves every time they finish reading a chapter, but doing so would probably help them remember the material on the final exam — and even after the class ended.
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University of Louisville psychologist Keith Lyle, PhD, used a captive audience — students in his undergraduate statistics classes — to prove the point.In one 75-person class, at the end of each class session he asked students to complete a four- to six-question short-answer quiz about material that had been presented during the lecture.
Cumulatively, the quizzes counted for just 8 percent of the students' final grade Writing Personal. Statements for Graduate School. Pat Sokolove, PhD. Deputy Director, OITE [email protected] your aptitude and motivation for graduate study. Your statement should not exceed two pages in length (single spaced). Please describe your previous academic work in your proposed field of study and .Cumulatively, the quizzes counted for just 8 percent of the students' final grade.
Lyle taught a second class using the same syllabus, but didn't do the daily quizzes.At the end of the semester, he found that students in the quiz class significantly outscored students in the nonquiz class on all four midterm exams.Roediger says that even though most professors won't use daily quizzes in their courses, students can — and should — test themselves by asking themselves questions during study sessions."The problem with repeated rereading, which is what most students do to study, is that it gives you a false sense of familiarity.
You feel like you know the material, but you've never tried retrieving it," he says myerscleaning.com/research-proposal/get-a-ethnicity-studies-research-proposal-11-days-formatting-double-spaced.You feel like you know the material, but you've never tried retrieving it," he says.Taking the Hard Route If decades of research have demonstrated that spacing, interweaving and testing help people to learn more effectively, then why don't more students and teachers use these strategies? Perhaps because they're difficult, say Kornell, Bjork and the other researchers.It's hard to study a topic, then switch to a different subject and wait a week to come back to the first one.When you do, you might feel like you're relearning the material — and, in a sense, you are.
Learning researchers recognize that these strategies aren't easy or fun to put into practice.
Bjork, in fact, has labeled the strategies "desirable difficulties." The strategies work because they are difficult — it's the process of learning, forgetting, retrieving and relearning that eventually registers the knowledge in our long-term memory."In the short term it's easier not to use these strategies , but in the long term it pays off a thousand times over," says Kornell.Putting in the extra work to learn material for the long haul is particularly important for graduate students, he says, because by the time you reach graduate school you're not just trying to pass a test — you're learning things you'll need to have a handle on for the rest of your working life."One of the most important transitions you make at the beginning of graduate school is realizing that you are really there to learn, not just get good grades," he says.
Digital Extra A powerful way to improve learning and memory Practicing retrieval enhances long-term, meaningful learning.Bradley associate professor of psychological sciences at Purdue University.He received a BA in psychology from Indiana University and a PhD in psychology from Washington University in St.Karpicke's research sits at the interface between cognitive science and education, with the goal of identifying effective strategies that promote long-term learning and comprehension.Karpicke's research has been funded by the National Science Foundation and the Institute of Education Sciences at the U.Karpicke was the recipient of the Janet Taylor Spence Award for Transformative Early Career Contributions from Association for Psychological Science, a National Science Foundation CAREER award, and the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.
The movie "Inside Out" (2015) takes us inside the mind of its young protagonist, an 11-year-old girl named Riley, and depicts memory in a way that is sure to resonate with many people.In Riley's mind, her memories are objects — globes colored with emotions — that are stored in a mental space, just as physical objects are stored in a physical space.When Riley experiences an event and creates a new memory, a new globe is produced in her mind, rolling down a ramp like a ball returning in a bowling alley.When Riley re-experiences a past event, a globe is placed in a projector and events are replayed, projected on a screen in her mind.
Cognitive psychologists refer to the mental processes involved in the creation of new memories and the recovery of past memories as encoding and retrieval, respectively.The depiction of the mind in "Inside Out" follows centuries of thought on how mind and memory work.Throughout history, scholars have used a common metaphor to talk about memory: The mind is a vast storehouse or space; memories are objects stored in that space; and retrieving a memory is akin to searching for and finding an object in a physical space (Roediger, 1980).To learn something new, according to this view, the challenge lies in getting knowledge "in" one's mental space.Getting it back "out" when needed is important, too, but learning is usually identified with the encoding of new knowledge in memory.
Retrieval is assumed to be neutral for learning; retrieval is needed to assess what a person has learned, but retrieval processes themselves are not thought to produce learning.Recent advances in the science of learning and memory have challenged common assumptions about how learning happens.Specifically, recent work has shown that retrieval is critical for robust, durable, long-term learning.Every time a memory is retrieved, that memory becomes more accessible in the future.Retrieval also helps people create coherent and integrated mental representations of complex concepts, the kind of deep learning necessary to solve new problems and draw new inferences.
Perhaps most surprisingly, practicing retrieval has been shown to produce more learning than engaging in other effective encoding techniques (Karpicke & Blunt, 2011).This approach, which recognizes the central role of retrieval processes in learning and aims to develop new learning strategies based on retrieval practice, is referred to as retrieval-based learning.Retrieval Creates Learning Research dating back a century has shown that retrieval contributes to learning (for a historical review, see Roediger & Karpicke, 2006a), but the past decade has seen a renewed, intense focus on exploring the benefits of retrieval for learning.This recent research has established that repeated retrieval enhances learning with a wide range of materials, in a variety of settings and contexts, and with learners ranging from preschool ages into later adulthood (Balota, Duchek, Sergent-Marshall & Roediger, 2006; Fritz, Morris, Nolan & Singleton, 2007).A word-learning experiment illustrates some key points about retrieval-based learning.
In the experiment (Karpicke & Bauernschmidt, 2011), students learned a list of foreign language words (e., Swahili vocabulary words like "mashua — boat") across cycles of study and recall trials.In study trials, the students saw a vocabulary word and its translation on the computer screen, and in recall trials, they saw a vocabulary word and had to recall and type its translation.The students studied a list of vocabulary words, then attempted to retrieve the whole list, studied it again, retrieved it again, and so on across alternating study and retrieval practice blocks.
There were several different conditions in the experiment.In one condition, students simply studied the words once, without trying to recall them at all.In a second condition, students continued studying and recalling the words until they had recalled all of them once.After a word was successfully retrieved once, it was "dropped" from further practice — the students did not see it again in the learning session.
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Other conditions in the experiment examined the effects of repeated retrieval practice.
Once a word was recalled, the computer program required the students to practice retrieving the items three more times.One repeated retrieval condition had the three recall trials happen immediately, three times in a row Writing Personal Statements for Graduate School Office of Intramural nbsp.One repeated retrieval condition had the three recall trials happen immediately, three times in a row.
This condition, referred to as massed retrieval practice, is akin to repeating a new piece of information over and over in your head right after you experience it.Finally, in the last condition highlighted here, the students also practiced retrieving the words three times, but the repeated retrievals were spaced throughout the learning session.
For instance, once a student correctly recalled the translation for mashua, the program moved on to other vocabulary words, but prompts to practice retrieval of the translation for mashua would pop up later on in the program Who can do my lab report psychology American single spaced Premium US Letter Size.
For instance, once a student correctly recalled the translation for mashua, the program moved on to other vocabulary words, but prompts to practice retrieval of the translation for mashua would pop up later on in the program.
In this way, the retrieval opportunities were spaced throughout the learning session.The key question in this research was, how well would students remember the vocabulary word translations in the long term? Figure 1 shows the proportion of translations that students remembered one week after the initial learning session.Merely studying the words once without ever recalling them produced extremely poor performance (average recall was 1 percent, barely visible on the figure).Practicing until each translation was recalled once was much better.But what about the effects of repeated retrieval practice? Massed retrieval — repeating the translations three times immediately — produced no additional gain in learning.
Repeated retrieval enhanced learning only when the repetitions were spaced, and indeed, the effects of repeated spaced retrieval were very large.In a single experiment, simple changes that incorporated spaced retrieval practice took performance from nearly total forgetting to extremely good retention (about 80 percent correct) one week after an initial learning experience (see also Karpicke & Roediger, 2008; Pyc & Rawson, 2010).Data from Karpicke & Bauernschmidt (2011).Retrieval Practice is Underappreciated as a Learning Strategy If retrieval practice is such a potent learning strategy, one would hope that many learners would practice retrieval to learn many different things in many situations.
However, as noted earlier, retrieval is not typically considered an important part of the learning process, and unfortunately, many learners do not practice retrieval as often or as effectively as they could.An emphasis on getting knowledge in memory shows up on surveys of students' learning strategies.In one survey (Karpicke, Butler & Roediger, 2009), college students were asked to list the strategies they use while studying and to rank-order the strategies.The results, shown in Figure 2, indicate that students' most frequent study strategy, by far, is repetitive reading of notes or textbooks.Active retrieval practice lagged far behind repetitive reading and other strategies (for a review of several learning strategies, see Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan & Willingham, 2013).
A wealth of research has shown that passive repetitive reading produces little or no benefit for learning (Callender & McDaniel, 2009).Yet not only was repetitive reading the most frequently listed strategy, it was also the strategy most often listed as students' number one choice, by a large margin.Survey data from Karpicke, Butler, & Roediger (2009).
Why don't learners use repeated retrieval practice more frequently? Many students view retrieval as a "knowledge check"; they test themselves to see if they know something, rather than out of the belief that practicing retrieval itself will help them learn.This means that many students will use a "one-and-done" strategy: If they can recall something once, they believe they have learned it, so they remove it from further practice.Many students study this way when they regulate their own learning (Karpicke, 2009), even though their long-term learning will not benefit from repeated retrieval practice.Instead, a one-and-done strategy will produce long-term performance similar to the recall-once condition in Figure 1.There is some evidence that instructing learners about the benefits of retrieval leads students to report using retrieval practice more frequently when they study on their own (Einstein, Mullet & Harrison, 2012), but the best ways to influence students to practice retrieval remain to be discovered.
Practicing Retrieval Promotes Meaningful Learning Perhaps another reason retrieval practice is not used more widely is because repeated retrieval may seem like "rote learning." Rote learning — simple memorization based on repetition — is short-lived, poorly organized and does not support the ability to transfer knowledge, make inferences or solve new problems.The outcome of rote learning is obviously not what students and educators aim for.Meaningful learning is essentially the opposite of rote learning: It is long-lasting and durable, coherent and well organized, and supports transfer, inferencing and problem solving.In fact, the past decade of research on retrieval-based learning has firmly established that retrieval practice promotes meaningful learning.
Retrieval-based learning may be a more effective means of achieving meaningful learning than other popular active learning strategies.In one example of this (Karpicke & Blunt, 2011), students studied educational texts about science topics using one of two strategies.In a retrieval practice condition, students read a text, then set it aside and spent time recalling and writing down as much as they could remember from it (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006b).They then reread the text and recalled it a second time.In a second condition, students created concept maps while they read the texts.
Concept maps are node-and-link diagrams that require learners to think about the relational and organizational structure of materials (Novak, 2013).The students spent the same amount of time studying in the two conditions; the difference was whether they created concept maps or practiced actively retrieving while learning.Figure 3 shows the results of two different final assessments given one week after the learning session.On one assessment, students answered two types of short-answer questions aimed at measuring meaningful learning: verbatim questions, which assessed concepts stated directly in the texts, and inference questions, which required students to make new connections across concepts.On another assessment, the final assessment involved creating a concept map, because concept mapping is often used as an assessment of the coherence and integration of students' knowledge.
On the final verbatim and inference questions and on the final concept map assessment, practicing retrieval during learning produced the best performance, even better than studying the material by making concept maps.Data adapted from Karpicke & Blunt (2011) (from Figure 2, panels A and C).Several additional studies have established that retrieval practice promotes meaningful learning.Retrieval practice enhances the learning of educationally relevant materials, including educational texts, multimedia presentations, material explained in classroom lectures and a variety of other complex concepts (Jensen, McDaniel, Woodard & Kummer, 2014; Johnson & Mayer, 2009; Larsen, Butler, Lawson & Roediger, 2013; Lyle & Crawford, 2011; Roediger, Agarwal, McDaniel & McDermott, 2011).
Retrieval practice also supports students in making inferences, solving new problems and transferring knowledge (Butler, 2010; Chan, 2009; Hinze & Wiley, 2011; McDaniel, Howard & Einstein, 2009; Smith & Karpicke, 2014).Retrieval-based learning is an effective method for improving meaningful learning.Creating Retrieval-based Learning Activities Perhaps the best aspect of retrieval-based learning is that it is free.
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Although there are sophisticated tools that can be used to implement retrieval practice, like classroom clicker systems (Roediger et al.
, 2011) and other computer-based learning systems (Grimaldi & Karpicke, 2014; Lindsey, Shroyer, Pashler, & Mozer, 2014), retrieval practice does not require special equipment or technology.
The essence of retrieval-based learning is taking material you are trying to learn, setting it aside, and spending time actively retrieving the information Scientific Reports is an online multidisciplinary, open access journal from the publishers of Nature..The essence of retrieval-based learning is taking material you are trying to learn, setting it aside, and spending time actively retrieving the information.
Existing educational activities can be converted into retrieval-based learning activities.For instance, answering questions and taking quizzes are effective ways to practice retrieval This MPhil/PhD Psychology Doctorate is a pure research programme, normally completed within 3-4 years of full-time work. We have a number of excellent laboratories across the different disciplines in Psychology; your work might make use of our fMRI or ERP facilities, VR labs, or our other cutting-edge research tools..For instance, answering questions and taking quizzes are effective ways to practice retrieval.In some circumstances, students might answer questions on quizzes or practice worksheets by looking up answers in their notes or books, rather than by attempting to retrieve the answers.One study directly compared this type of open-book questioning to closed-book conditions in which students were required to retrieve the answers to questions rather than looking them up (Agarwal, Karpicke, Kang, Roediger & McDermott, 2008).
Answering questions in open-book conditions led to more forgetting over one week than did attempting to retrieve the answers, closed-book and then studying the answers.In other words, closed-book quizzes, which required retrieval practice, were more effective than open-book quizzes, which did not require learners to engage in retrieval.Another study (Blunt & Karpicke, 2014) examined the effectiveness of using concept mapping as a retrieval practice activity.In the experiment, students read texts about science topics and then created concept maps either with or without viewing the texts.In other words, some students created maps while studying the texts whereas other students had to engage in retrieval to create their maps.
On a short-answer assessment one week after the learning session, students did better when they had learned by creating concept maps without viewing the texts, as a retrieval practice activity, than by creating maps while studying the texts.Thus, educational activities can be enhanced when they involve retrieval-based learning.Take Home Points About Retrieval-based Learning This article has made the case for four take-home points about retrieval-based learning: Retrieval is a learning event.Practicing retrieval is a simple and effective way to enhance long-term, meaningful learning.Some effective learning strategies, like retrieval practice, are underutilized.
Conversely, the most popular learning strategy among college students – repetitive reading – leads to very limited levels of learning.When practicing retrieval, retrieve more than once and space your retrievals, rather than massing them all together.Self-testing as a knowledge check is a good idea, but don't stop at just one successful retrieval (one-and-done).Two or three additional spaced retrievals will bolster long-term learning.Retrieval can happen in a variety of ways, and many existing activities may be converted into retrieval-based learning activities.
The key ingredient is to spend time actively retrieving when trying to learn something new.Examining the testing effect with open- and closed-book tests.Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(7), 861-876.
Does expanded retrieval produce benefits over equal-interval spacing? Explorations of spacing effects in healthy aging and early stage Alzheimer's disease.Learning with retrieval-based concept mapping.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(3), 849-858.Repeated testing produces superior transfer of learning relative to repeated studying.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36(5), 1118-1133.The limited benefits of rereading educational texts.Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 30-41.When does retrieval induce forgetting and when does it induce facilitation? Implications for retrieval inhibition, testing effect, and text processing.Journal of Memory and Language, 61(2), 153-170.
Improving students' learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology.Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(1), 4-58.The testing effect: Illustrating a fundamental concept and changing study strategies.Teaching of Psychology, 39(3), 190-193.Expanding retrieval practice: An effective aid to preschool children's learning.The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60(7), 991-1004.
Guided retrieval practice of educational materials using automated scoring.Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(1), 58-68.Testing the limits of testing effects using completion tests.
or testing to teach: Exams requiring higher order thinking skills encourage greater conceptual understanding.Educational Psychology Review, 26(2), 307-329.A testing effect with multimedia learning.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 621-629.Metacognitive control and strategy selection: Deciding to practice retrieval during learning.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 138(4), 469-486.Spaced retrieval: Absolute spacing enhances learning regardless of relative spacing.
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Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37(5), 1250-1257.Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping.Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own? Memory, 17(4), 471-479 .Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own? Memory, 17(4), 471-479.
The critical importance of retrieval for learning.The importance of seeing the patient: Test-enhanced learning with standardized patients and written tests improves clinical application of knowledge.Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18(3), 409-425.
Improving students' long-term knowledge retention through personalized review.Retrieving essential material at the end of lectures improves performance on statistics exams.
The read-recite-review study strategy: Effective and portable.), International Guide to Student Achievement (pp.New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Why testing improves memory: Mediator effectiveness hypothesis.
Memory metaphors in cognitive psychology.Test-enhanced learning in the classroom: Long-term improvements from quizzing.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17(4), 382-395.The power of testing memory: Basic research and implications for educational practice.
Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(3), 181-210.Test-enhanced learning: Taking memory tests improves long-term retention.Retrieval practice with short-answer, multiple-choice, and hybrid tests.The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not reflect the opinions or policies of APA.Pavlet) Scientific research is a public venture.Therefore, one of the essential skills of the scientist is to be able to communicate ideas and research results effectively.This hypertext guide is an attempt to make the style of writing used in the field of psychology clear to you.
It summarizes a lot of the material available in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5-th edition) (2001) and is oriented toward undergraduate students.For example, it includes numerous hints to avoid common mistakes students make.Note the examples appear in a teletype font to distinguish them from the normal text.Finally, the document is organized in an outline format for at least two reasons.First, it should make it easier for students to quickly locate the information they seek.
Second, it should make it easier for an instructor to grade students papers.In most cases, the student can simply be referred to the outline item that addresses the problem rather than writing the comment repeatedly on multiple papers.Note that a checklist version of this writing guide is available.General Topics Typing - Here is a Microsoft Word 2002 document/template that should help you with some of the basic formatting.Your papers must be typed or printed on a computer.
Set the typewriter or word processor to double space and keep it there throughout the entire manuscript.Use one inch margins on the left, right, top, and bottom of the page.These margins are wide in order to leave room for reviewer's comments.Use normal paragraphs in which the first line is indented five characters for all paragraphs in the manuscript except the abstract, block quotes, titles and headings, subheadings, references, table titles, notes, and figure captions.In other words, there should be 10 typed characters per inch.Single space after sentence terminators (i.Capitalize the first letter following a colon if the clause following the colon is a complete sentence.Make sure the text is left aligned and not justified.With left aligned text, the left margin forms a straight line and the right margin is ragged.With justified text both the left and right margins form a straight line.Do not hyphenate (split) words at the end of a line.
Finally, just staple or clip the finished product (do not bother with fancy folders, etc.Writing in General You must use complete sentences.The first sentence of a paragraph must be independent (able to stand on its own).For example consider While these studies are important, there is.
This sentence would be correct in the middle of a paragraph, but as the first sentence, it should more appropriately read, While studies of the effects of whatever on whatever else are important, there is.If you are doubtful about the spelling of a word, do not guess.
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Look up the correct spelling in an appropriate reference source (e.Proofread the copy that you submit and do correct minor typographical errors, formatting, spelling, or even the wording, with a pencil.These corrections are inevitable and will communicate that you are serious about your work Finishing your PhD thesis 15 top tips from those in the know Higher nbsp.These corrections are inevitable and will communicate that you are serious about your work.
Style Details in General Assume you are writing the paper for submission to a scientific journal.
A lot of the formatting details can be learned by carefully modeling another APA journal article Scientific Reports Nature.
A lot of the formatting details can be learned by carefully modeling another APA journal article.
It would be a good idea to acquire a few fairly recent articles, because the format was revised in 1995 Scientific Reports Nature.It would be a good idea to acquire a few fairly recent articles, because the format was revised in 1995.Try the Psychological Record or The Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society.Both of these journals publish relatively short articles that are not too complicated.Avoid excessive use of the terms I, personally speaking.him or she or a (s)he or him/her all of the time can also be awkward.
If you phrase it right, you can often use the word person instead.In the Smith (1990) study it was found that.should read more like Smith (1990) found that.Generally speaking, use past tense in the abstract, introduction, and method.Results and discussion sections can be in the present tense.
If they cannot understand it, then it needs work.If you cannot get a friend to read it, then try to read it yourself making believe that you are naive.Abbreviations When abbreviating any terms, spell them out the first time (in both the abstract and again in the body of the manuscript, if need be).For example, The Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) was used to.
Whereas one, two, or three can be helpful, four or five can be confusing.You will often see the following Latin abbreviations used: cf.versus, against Note that (except for et al.
) these abbreviations are only used in parenthetic material.In non parenthetic material, use the English translation.Do not use E and S as abbreviations for experimenter and subject.This was done in articles written many years ago.Note the following common abbreviations and note also that you do not use periods with them.
cm Numbers All measurement reporting is done in metric units.In other words, use centimeters and meters rather than inches and feet.The numbers zero through nine are spelled out (except when it is a table or figure number, or a metric measurement, etc.The numbers 10 and above are written as numbers.
Capitalize nouns followed by numerals or letters that denote a specific place in a numbered series.For example, As can be seen in Figure 3, during Block 4 of Session 2 such and such occurred.Note that this example demonstrates one of the exceptions to the rule noted in I.In the abstract, use digits for all numbers except when they begin a sentence.Note that this example demonstrates one of the exceptions to the rule noted in I.Spell out any number when it is the first thing in a sentence.
For example, the sentence 34 students were used., is not appropriate and should read Thirty-four students were used.Try to be consistent with number formats.That is, if you are reporting a series of related numbers, they should all be presented with the same number of decimal places.Citations in the Text If you use someone's words or ideas, you must give them credit with a citation.This is particularly important, since the penalties for plagiarism are severe.
There are numerous ways to formally cite a reference in the text.
Examples include Some fact (last name, year)., or In
For example, Miller, Rosellini, and Seligman (1975) suggested that.With articles that have three or more authors use the Latin abbreviation for "and others" when the reference is cited a second (or third) time.
If the citation is in parentheses and you need to use the word "and", use the ampersand ('&') instead., Estes & Skinner, 1940) have suggested that., as compared to Estes and Skinner (1940) have suggested 12 May 2017 - Other common academic style manuals include The Chicago Manual of Style and The Modern Language Association Style Manual, (also known as Chicago and MLA ). If you are a graduate student, it is a really good idea to purchase the style manual accepted by the majority of the faculty in your ., as compared to Estes and Skinner (1940) have suggested.
Note also that the opposite applies as well, that is, if the citation is not in parentheses, you must use the word "and".Multiple citations in parentheses are placed alphabetically and are separated by a semicolon and a space Make the most of your study time by spacing out when you study, mixing up the subjects, and testing yourself. When it comes to spacing, students are often led astray by their own experiences, says Kent State University psychology professor Katherine Rawson, PhD, who also studies learning. They cram right before an .Multiple citations in parentheses are placed alphabetically and are separated by a semicolon and a space.For example, Some fact (Carlson, 1972; Moon, 1968; Partin, 1980) Make the most of your study time by spacing out when you study, mixing up the subjects, and testing yourself. When it comes to spacing, students are often led astray by their own experiences, says Kent State University psychology professor Katherine Rawson, PhD, who also studies learning. They cram right before an .
For example, Some fact (Carlson, 1972; Moon, 1968; Partin, 1980).
If you cite something second hand, you must make it clear (e., Some fact (Smith, as cited in Jones, Year)).Note that in this example, only the Jones reference would be placed in the reference section.Quotations Smith (1978) noted that "the world is round" (p.
Three or four quotes in a 10 page paper is about the upper limit.Display a quotation of more than 40 words as free-standing block of text indented 5 spaces from the left margin (doubles spaced as usual).Omit the quotation marks and include the page number in parentheses after the last period.Also, if the quotation is more than one paragraph, indent the first line of the second and any additional paragraphs 5 spaces.
Research Reports Title Page The manuscript page header is the first thing that appears on the title page.It consists of the first two or three words of the title and is followed by the page number.It is used by the editors and reviewers to identify the pages of the manuscript.It is placed in the upper right hand corner of all pages of the manuscript (except for any figures).Thus, the manuscript page header should appear as the first line of the title page, right justified with the number '1' either double spaced below it or 5 spaces to the the right of it.
If you are using a word processor, you can have it put this manuscript page header on all pages automatically.The running head comes next and is no more than 50 characters (including punctuation and spaces).It typically consists of a couple of key words from the title.Type this running head flush left and in all capital letters.For example, Running head: ABORTION ATTITUDES IN COLLEGE STUDENTS (note that the 'R' in running is capitalized, but the 'h' in head is not).
The title should summarize the main idea of the paper in 10-12 words.Another option is to use the main finding as the title, for example, Prenatal Alcohol Impairs Passive Avoidance Learning in Rats.With other types of research you should try to include the variables of interest in the title (and be careful not to imply causality).
Also, it is a good idea to include the species if you're working with animals or some details about the type of population if you're working with humans.When typing the title, center it on the page and capitalize only the first letter of important words.On the next double spaced line is the author's name and on the next double spaced line is the institutional affiliation.For the purposes of this class, I would also like you to include something like In partial fulfillment of the requirements for PSY389, Instructor's Name, and the Date.
Abstract Center the word Abstract on this page, then begin typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.
, do not insert any extra blank lines here).Type this section as a single (double spaced) paragraph in block format (i.The purpose of this section is to provide a brief and comprehensive summary of the study.It is very important because it is all that many people will read.It should include a brief description of the problem being investigated, the methods used, the results, and their implications.It should be accurate (do not include information here that is not in the body of the manuscript), self-contained (spell out abbreviations), concise (120 word maximum), and specific (begin this section with the most important information and limit it to the four or five most important concepts, findings, or implications of the study).As part of the theme of being concise, use digits for all numbers except when they begin a sentence.
Avoid citing references in the abstract.Researchers instructed participants to ., rather than, Participants were given instructions to .Use past tense for procedures and present tense for results.It is a good idea to write this section last (after all of the other sections are written).
You might try taking the lead sentences from the various sections of the manuscript and integrating them.Introduction The introduction begins on Page 3.Start this page by retyping your title (centered), then begin typing the section (on the next double spaced line) using normal (5 space indented) paragraphs.The main purpose of this section is to tell the reader why you performed the study.
In other words, you have to inform the reader of the research question and indicate why it is important, and how it is unique when compared to previous studies.It starts out broad and becomes more and more specific.
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For example, you might begin by defining any relevant terms.Then go on to review the relevant literature.Avoid an exhaustive and historical review Jump to Need to order an psychology lab report business formatting single - Best website to purchase an thesis intellectual property mla single spaced academic 134 pages / 36850 words; Philip guo overview of u s science and engineering ph d program nbsp; Who can do my intellectual property thesis .
Avoid an exhaustive and historical review.
Then go on to make clear the connection between previous research and the present work.You might include any hypotheses and the rationale for them Need to order an lab report psychology professional 149 pages / 40975 words Standard A4 (British/European) single spaced.You might include any hypotheses and the rationale for them.The final paragraph usually contains a statement which clearly and explicitly states why the study was performed, such as The purpose of this study was to.or The present study was designed to investigate the.Be especially careful not to use a sentence of this type earlier in your introduction.
Thus, this section should contain an absolute minimum of four paragraphs: the general introduction, the literature review, the connection of the present study to the literature and the explicit statement of purpose.Methods Do not purposely start a new page for this section.Simply center the word Method and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i., do not insert any extra blank lines here).
The purpose of this section is to describe in detail how you performed the study.Someone should be able to replicate your study based on the information you provide in this section.Make it sound professional, that is, do not make it sound like a class project.Assume you are writing for submission to a scientific journal.Avoid unnecessary details like the data were displayed on the computer screen and recorded on the data sheet(s).
This is similar to the empty word problem described in I.For an experiment, this section is typically divided into four subsections: subjects, apparatus, design, and procedure.
The order of design followed by procedure is arbitrary.
In other words, you could have the procedure come before the design.Sometimes researchers combine the design and procedure sections, however, in an experimental psychology or research methods class, a separate design section is typically required., one in which the participants are simply asked a set of questions), the design section is not necessary (and the survey itself may be included as an appendix).
Subjects/Participants This section is labeled as subjects or participants depending on whether animals or humans are used in the study.If animals are used, use the term subjects.If humans are used, use the term participants.Do not purposely start a new page for this section.Type the appropriate title for this subsection flush with the left margin and italicize it.
On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs.Indicate who participated in the study, how many, and how were they selected.With human subjects, be sure to address the issue of informed consent.Include any details which are relevant to the study.For animals, include the gender, age, strain, weight.
For humans, include the gender, age, race/ethnicity, and, when appropriate, the socioeconomic status, disability status, sexual orientation, etc.If the subjects were human, what type of reward or motivation was used to encourage them to participate? Apparatus Do not purposely start a new page for this section.Type the word Apparatus flush with the left margin and italicize it.On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs.Describe what materials were used and how they functioned in the study.
If you use a piece of equipment, you must give the model number, company, and state where the company resides (as a two-letter abbreviation).You must give the dimensions (and perhaps other descriptive details) of any important items used in the study.Standard equipment such as furniture, stopwatches, pencils and paper, can usually be mentioned without providing a lot of details.In fact, you may often simply mention these items in passing as part of the procedure.Be careful not to describe procedures in this section.
You should make clear what purpose the apparatus served, but do not give a lot of details on the use of the apparatus at this point.One hint in this regard is to avoid using action verbs in this section.Design Do not purposely start a new page for this section.Type the word Design flush with the left margin and italicize it.On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs.
Describe the design and clearly spell out the independent and dependent variables.Indicate what the levels of the independent variables were, and whether the factor(s) were repeated, matched, or independent.
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Describe how the subjects were assigned to groups.Procedure Do not purposely start a new page for this section.
Type the word Procedure flush with the left margin and italicize it Psychology With Style: A Hypertext Writing Guide. Provides a summary of how to write scientific papers using the format of the American Psychological Association..Type the word Procedure flush with the left margin and italicize it.
On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs.Carefully summarize each step in the execution of the study 27 Aug 2014 - Turning years of research into a single, coherent piece of work can be tough, so we asked for tips from supervisors and recent PhD graduates. (Francis Woodhouse, PhD in mathematical biology, University of Cambridge). 13) Get a buddy “Find a colleague, your partner, a friend who is willing to support .Carefully summarize each step in the execution of the study.Indicate what a typical test, trial, or session involved 27 Aug 2014 - Turning years of research into a single, coherent piece of work can be tough, so we asked for tips from supervisors and recent PhD graduates. (Francis Woodhouse, PhD in mathematical biology, University of Cambridge). 13) Get a buddy “Find a colleague, your partner, a friend who is willing to support .Indicate what a typical test, trial, or session involved.Describe any phases that the study had or any instructions that the subjects received should i purchase a college intellectual property thesis double spaced two hours 21 pages / 5775 words.
Describe any phases that the study had or any instructions that the subjects received.
When referring to groups, try to use descriptive labels.For example, instead of saying Group 1 or the experimental group, you might say the drugged group.Another technique in this regard is to use abbreviations that emphasize meaning.For example, There were three groups, including, the control group which received 0 mg/kg of morphine (M0), a low dose group receiving 1 mg/kg of morphine (M1), and a high dose group receiving 4 mg/kg of morphine (M4).Results Do not purposely start a new page for this section.
Simply center the word Results and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i., do not insert any extra blank lines here).That is, take a good hard look at all those numbers you collect.
Think of different ways to summarize them (describe), as well as to make sense of them (analyze).You might find my Psychological Statistics Site helpful.This section will be easier to write if you make any tables and/or figures you intend to use first.Briefly state the main findings in words.That is, first give a general description, then go into the details.
When presenting the results of statistical tests, give descriptive statistics before the corresponding inferential statistics.In other words, give means and/or percentages (perhaps referring to a table or figure), before talking about the results of any statistical tests you performed.When presenting means, it is reasonable to use one additional digit of accuracy than what is contained in the raw data.In other words, if the raw data consisted of whole numbers, then the means should contain one decimal place.When presenting nominal or ordinal data, give the percents rather than frequencies (since percents are independent of the sample size).
The general format for presenting an inferential statistic is: Statistic(df) = value, probability = value.Also, if the computer output says the probability is .When possible, include some statistical estimate of effect size.When actually presenting the results, try to emphasize the meaning of the statistics.That is, clearly describe what it is you are testing and what significance means for the variables involved.See some examples of the correct way to present the results of several common statistical tests.Do not discuss the implications of the results in this section.
Do not talk about the meaning of the alpha level or the null hypothesis, and what chance factors have to do with it.Since you are writing for the scientific community, you can assume the reader will have a working knowledge of statistics.If you are presenting a lot of material here, you may wish to employ subheadings (as is done in the methods section).These subheadings should have meaning and relevance to the data and should help to organize your presentation of it.In other words, they should not be organized by the type of analysis employed.
Since this is not expected by the reader, it is a good idea to precede the subheadings with a paragraph informing the reader of the logical organization of this section.In cases where the reader would expect something to be significant and it is not, you should address the issue.Do not provide raw data unless, for some reason, you require a single subject approach.Since statistical tests are based on probability and can be in error, they do not really prove anything.
You can only use wording that implies causality if you actually manipulated the independent variable (i.For example, suppose you manipulated whether subjects received a drug (while employing appropriate control procedures, etc.) and found a significant difference in memory performance (with the drug users performing more poorly than nonusers).
In this case, you would be able to conclude that the drug caused the difference in memory ability; it impaired it.As another example, suppose that you compared drug use (as determined from the results of a survey) with memory ability and found a correlation (greater use went along with poorer memory performance).Since correlation doesn't say much about causality, we could only conclude that there is a relationship between drug use and memory ability.Discussion Do not purposely start a new page for this section.Simply center the word Discussion and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.
, do not insert any extra blank lines here).
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The purpose of this section is to evaluate and interpret the results, especially with respect to the original research question.Start off with a brief, non-technical summary of the results.In other words, tell the reader about the main findings without using statistical terminology 26 Oct 2017 - About the courseStudents on the DPhil in Experimental Psychology will carry out independent research under the supervision and guidance of principal investigators and researchers within a research group or lab. Areas of study include behavioural neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, social psychology .
In other words, tell the reader about the main findings without using statistical terminology.
Then go on to discuss the implications of the results.In other words, whatever was found needs to be discussed.It is also important to discuss how the results relate to the literature you cited in the introduction.In other words, emphasize any theoretical consequences of the results.
You might (or might not) also mention any limitations of the study and any suggestions for future research in this section.
Finally, you need an ending paragraph in which you make a final summary statement of the conclusions you have drawn.You are also encouraged, when appropriate, to comment on the importance and relevance of your findings.How are your findings related to the big picture? Thus, this section should contain an absolute minimum of three paragraphs: the non-technical summary, discussion of the results and their implications, and the concluding paragraph.Any citations made in the manuscript must be presented in this section and vice versa.That is, if something is not cited in the text, then it should not appear in this section.In still other words, this is not a bibliography.In any of the previous sections, whenever you say something like studies have shown you must provide a citation.This section tells the reader where they can find these citations.
This section is alphabetized by last name (of the first author involved in the study).A hanging indent is employed for each reference, that is, the first line is not indented and the rest are five-space indented.For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle) initials followed by periods.Separate multiple authors with commas and the last author with the ampersand ('&') rather than the word "and".After the author(s) comes the year (in parentheses and followed by a period).
For a journal reference, italicize the title of the journal and the volume number.Note that issue numbers are typically not included.Also, capitalize the important words of the journal title.For a book reference, just italicize the title.Only capitalize the first word of the title.
Do include the city, state (as a two-letter abbreviation without periods), and the publisher's name.It provides several types of references, including: Single and multiple author, journal articles, book, and book chapter, web page, as well as a government document.Other Sections After the above sections come any tables, the page(s) with the figure captions, and finally any figures, respectively.Each belongs on a separate page (multiple figure captions can appear on one page however).
Tables and the figure captions page have a manuscript page header and page number just like all the other typed pages.Note that figures are not typed, and so do not have a manuscript page header and page number.Tables and figures should be able to stand alone (i., you should not have to read the manuscript to be able to understand a table or figure).
A big help in this regard is the table title or the figure caption.Use these wisely to explain what is going on in the table or figure.In other words, do not be afraid to be a little bit verbose in your table titles and figure captions.Tables and figures should not duplicate the same information.Likewise, you should not repeat the data point values in a table or figure in the text of the manuscript.
Tables and figures are more expensive to include in the manuscript than text.Therefore, if you include one, it should include a reasonable number of data points.In other words, if you only have a few data points to present, do it in the text of the manuscript rather than in a table or figure.Tables and figures are most often used to present results, but may also be used to present other information, such as the design or a theoretical schema.If you include a table or figure, you must introduce it in the text of the results section (e.
) and describe to the reader what should be seen in it.Tables Note that APA style tables do not contain any vertical lines, so do not draw them in or use your word processor to generate them.Type the table number and then (on the next double spaced line) type the table title flush left and italicized.
Note that there are no periods used after the table number or title.There are different ways to format tables.Your best bet is to set the tabs for the table or to use your word processor's table generating ability.
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When using columns with decimal numbers, make the decimal points line up.