Instructions:This lab report is regarding the Anthropology. The detail of instruction and grading rubric is in the attachment, please use the data of I have gathered and recorded in part A and finish the lab report in part B.

The part B also have some examples for this lab report. The required textbook for this lab report is "Jurmain, Robert, Lynn Kilgore, Wenda Trevathan, Eric J. Bartelink (2016) Essentials of Physical Anthropology, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

"It will be your task tohypothesize changes in the skull and mandible (including teeth) for late-stage of hominin evolution – from H. sapiens – and then test your hypotheses against the fossil record using fossil casts with the goal of determining which casts belong to each stage. These hypotheses will be tested against data collected in Lab 4. What do you expect to find and what will you look for? Once in the lab, what do you find? Do the data coincide with your expectations? What do you infer from the fossils about evolving behavior? Could there be alternative explanations?source.

Content: HypothesesThe cranial features changed over time as humans evolved with the most important being increasing brain case size. Similarly, the shape of the cranium varied over the years with changes in the brain case size, which incidentally resulted to smaller teeth in modern man.

The frontal bone rises while the Zygomatics (cheekbones) is less pronounced in Homo sapiens compared to the previous species. Similarly, the supraorbital torus (Brow Bridge) changes from high prominence to low prominence as man adapted to the environment.

The dental/ mandible features also change as modern man is no longer a hunter gather, with the molar size getting smaller Learn the parts of a lab report including the title page, abstract, introduction, methods, results and more..

Similarly, the mandible shape have changed as the species have adapted to different types of foods as they changed from thick and large to thick and smaller. Even as the earlier species had larger molars the canine teeth in Homo neanderthalensis has no grooves. The major mandible changes from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens is the consumption of softer food as the species were less reliant on hunting with cooking more common in the modern man Traits/ features Changes in the brain case size and shape of the cranium are an indicator that as the species evolved they were more intelligent and had better tool making abilities.

The biological evolution associated with enlarging brains has resulted in the frontal lobes. Reduced mandible sizes through evolution, which are also thinner in modern man, are associate.